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Saturday, February 4, 2023

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The Divided States of Fuel


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2020 Residential Energy Consumption Survey highlights fuel use at state level

Last month, Oil & Energy published two articles featuring data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s 2020 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). “Who Are Your Competitors’ Customers?” documented fuel use, space heating, water heating, and air conditioning equipment at the national and regional level. “Whose Heat Pump?” took a closer look at the characteristics of homes using heat pumps, highlighting demographics like year of construction and household income among others.

After our July issue hit the press, EIA released a new set of RECS data highlighting state-level housing characteristics. Per EIA, “This is the first time in program history that data have been released for all 50 states and the District of Columbia.” The release includes select state-level data for air conditioning, appliances, electronics and lighting, fuel used, household characteristics, space heating fuel, space heating equipment, structural characteristics, and water heating.

In this article, Oil & Energy documents fuel used by homes in each U.S. state. For readers’ convenience and consideration, we have again included several side bars indicating what could be some of the most important data points along with possible interpretations of those data. The complete 2020 RECS, including all the aforementioned state-level highlights, can be accessed online at eia.gov/recs.

 

Fuels Used in U.S. Homes by State, 2020
Number (million) and percentage of housing units
  Totala Home is all-electricb Natural Gas Propanec Wood Fuel oil or kerosene
A Curious Commonality
Though propane is frequently marketed as a whole-home solution that can provide energy for heating, cooking, and hot water, there is not one U.S. state in which propane is the most popular residential fuel. The only other fuel in the RECS for which this holds true is wood.
All Homes 123.53 32.35 - 26% 74.65 - 60% 11.68 - 9% 10.83 - 9% 5.72 - 5%
Electrify Everything Else
More than one-quarter of U.S. homes already use electricity for heating, cooking, and everything else for which a fuel source is required (sans transportation). The only fuel that already occupies a bigger share of the U.S. home energy mix is natural gas.
Alabama 1.90 0.77 - 41% 0.80 - 42% 0.25 - 13% 0.20 - 10% Q - Q
Alaska 0.26 0.03 - 11% 0.16 - 62% 0.03 - 10% 0.06 - 23% 0.07 - 26%
Arizona 2.68 1.07 - 40% 1.37 - 51% 0.17 - 6% 0.19 - 7% Q - Q
Arkansas 1.14 0.36 - 32% 0.57 - 50% 0.17 - 15% 0.16 - 14% N - N
California 13.18 1.11 - 8% 11.54 - 88% 0.77 - 6% 1.00 - 8% Q - Q
Colorado 2.26 0.26 - 11% 1.85 - 82% 0.14 - 6% 0.20 - 9% Q - Q
Connecticut 1.38 0.15 - 11% 0.66 - 48% 0.20 - 15% 0.21 - 15% 0.55 - 40%
Delaware 0.38 0.11 - 29% 0.18 - 47% 0.08 - 22% Q - Q 0.04 - 10%
DC 0.32 0.08 - 24% 0.23 - 74% Q - Q Q - Q Q - Q
Florida 8.06 6.22 - 77% 1.25 - 16% 0.38 - 5% 0.34 - 4% N - N
The All-Electric State
Florida has by a wide margin the greatest number of all-electric homes of any U.S. state, as well as the greatest number of homes heated by a central heat pump (2.54 million). Florida also has the second most homes with central air conditioning, behind only California.
Georgia 3.88 1.28 - 33% 2.08 - 54% 0.44 - 11% 0.33 - 9% Q - Q
Hawaii 0.47 0.34 - 72% 0.08 - 16% 0.06 - 12% Q - Q N - N
Idaho 0.66 0.13 - 20% 0.42 - 63% 0.08 - 12% 0.10 - 15% Q - Q
Illinois 4.90 0.56 - 11% 4.10 - 84% 0.25 - 5% 0.30 - 6% Q - Q
Indiana 2.60 0.51 - 20% 1.80 - 69% 0.25 - 10% 0.17 - 6% Q - Q
Iowa 1.28 0.18 - 14% 0.92 - 72% 0.19 - 15% 0.07 - 5% Q - Q
Kansas 1.13 0.18 - 16% 0.81 - 72% 0.12 - 11% 0.11 - 10% Q - Q
Kentucky 1.74 0.65 - 37% 0.83 - 48% 0.19 - 11% 0.12 - 7% Q - Q
Louisiana 1.73 0.75 - 44% 0.80 - 46% 0.10 - 6% 0.16 - 9% N - N
Maine 0.56 0.04 - 7% 0.13 - 24% 0.20 - 35% 0.16 - 28% 0.30 - 53%
Maryland 2.28 0.68 - 30% 1.23 - 54% 0.16 - 7% 0.24 - 11% 0.16 - 7%
Massachusetts 2.71 0.28 - 10% 1.74 - 64% 0.22 - 8% 0.30 - 11% 0.70 - 26%
Michigan 3.92 0.26 - 7% 3.15 - 80% 0.43 - 11% 0.36 - 9% 0.12 - 3%
Minnesota 2.23 0.22 - 10% 1.59 - 71% 0.40 - 18% 0.16 - 7% Q - Q
Mississippi 1.08 0.43 - 39% 0.44 - 41% 0.19 - 18% 0.07 - 7% Q - Q
Missouri 2.43 0.61 - 25% 1.53 - 63% 0.24 - 10% 0.24 - 10% N - N
Montana 0.43 0.09 - 20% 0.27 - 63% 0.05 - 12% 0.08 - 18% Q - Q
Nebraska 0.77 0.15 - 20% 0.56 - 73% 0.05 - 6% 0.06 - 8% N - N
Nevada 1.14 0.18 - 16% 0.88 - 77% 0.08 - 7% 0.12 - 10% N - N
New Hampshire 0.54 0.04 - 7% 0.18 - 33% 0.18 - 33% 0.16 - 29% 0.23 - 43%
New Jersey 3.39 0.38 - 11% 2.74 - 81% 0.18 - 5% 0.26 - 8% 0.28 - 8%
The Gas & Electric State
On a percentage basis, New Jersey has more homes using natural gas than any other state in the Northeast, including all New England and Mid-Atlantic states (New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania). Across the region, New Jersey has by far the lowest combined share of homes using oil or propane, as well as the greatest total share of homes that are all-electric or use natural gas.
New Mexico 0.79 Q - Q 0.64 - 81% 0.09 - 12% 0.15 - 20% N - N
New York 7.52 0.56 - 7% 5.80 - 77% 0.86 - 11% 0.44 - 6% 1.36 - 18%
North Carolina 4.01 1.82 - 45% 1.44 - 36% 0.50 - 12% 0.26 - 6% 0.10 - 2%
North Dakota 0.32 0.08 - 27% 0.16 - 52% 0.06 - 18% 0.02 - 6% Q - Q
Ohio 4.74 0.86 - 18% 3.24 - 68% 0.47 - 10% 0.37 - 8% 0.15 - 3%
Oklahoma 1.49 0.34 - 23% 0.91 - 61% 0.15 - 10% 0.23 - 15% N - N
Oregon 1.65 0.56 - 34% 0.81 - 49% 0.11 - 7% 0.37 - 23% Q - Q
Pennsylvania 5.13 0.89 - 17% 2.95 - 57% 0.70 - 14% 0.60 - 12% 0.77 - 15%
Rhode Island 0.42 0.04 - 9% 0.25 - 59% 0.05 - 11% 0.05 - 13% 0.13 - 32%
South Carolina 1.97 0.93 - 47% 0.78 - 39% 0.22 - 11% 0.12 - 6% Q - Q
South Dakota 0.35 0.07 - 21% 0.21 - 61% 0.06 - 17% 0.0 - 27% Q - Q
Tennessee 2.66 1.23 - 46% 1.05 - 40% 0.23 - 9% 0.21 - 8% Q - Q
Texas 10.26 3.77 - 37% 5.51 - 54% 0.65 - 6% 0.79 - 8% Q - Q
Utah 1.04 0.10 - 9% 0.93 - 89% Q - Q 0.07 - 7% N - N
Vermont 0.26 Q - Q 0.07 - 26% 0.10 - 39% 0.07 - 29% 0.14 - 53%
The Liquid State
On a percentage basis, liquid fuels are most popular in Vermont, as oil/kerosene and propane are used by 53% and 29% of homes in the state, respectively. Every other New England state, except Rhode Island, has more homes using oil or propane than Vermont, but these fuels occupy a smaller share of the home energy mix in those states.
Virginia 3.24 1.06 - 33% 1.46 - 45% 0.46 - 14% 0.36 - 11% 0.17 - 5%
Washington 2.94 1.23 - 42% 1.31 - 45% 0.24 - 8% 0.34 - 11% Q - Q
West Virginia 0.70 0.22 - 32% 0.33 - 47% 0.10 - 14% 0.10 - 14% Q - Q
Wisconsin 2.39 0.30 - 13% 1.74 - 73% 0.33 - 14% 0.28 - 12% Q - Q
Wyoming 0.23 0.03 - 15% 0.16 - 71% 0.03 - 11% 0.04 - 16% N - N

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Demand and Integrated Statistics, Form EIA-457A of the 2020 Residential Energy Consumption Survey
Notes: Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. Percentages are calculated on unrounded numbers.
a Total includes all primary occupied housing units. Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military houses, and group quarters are excluded.
b Home is all-electric refers to homes that only use electricity and do not use natural gas, propane, wood, fuel oil or kerosene for any end use. May include homes that use other fuels for outdoor grilling only.
c Households that use propane only for outdoor grilling are excluded from the RECS estimate of households using propane.
Q = Data withheld because either the relative standard error was greater than 50% or fewer than 10 households were in the reporting sample.
N = No households in reporting sample.

 


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